All of my sculptural work begins with multiple scaled concept models. Sometimes as many as ten models are created for a specific project. They are created from simulated materials to be used in the final sculpture. Not all models immediately become sculptures. The models are my sketchbook, and all are kept for future use. Creating concepts models is a necessary step in translating an idea into a three-dimensional form. These scaled models allow visual reference to the relationships of the sculpture’s proportions, angles, and elements. These are examples of models that might be used for sculptures.